Linux Grub VGA Boot Modes Screen Resolution



VGA Boot modes to set screen resolution | Grub Configurations.

VGA Boot Modes Screen Resolution


Linux Grub VGA Boot Modes Screen Resolution is a simple way to set your screen resolution and color depth for most Live Linux is via the use of the vga=parameter boot option. For example at boot you might type: Live vga=795. This would set your system to boot using the Live label with a screen resolution to 24bit 1280X1024. Here are some more examples of common vga boot values.


VGA Resolution: Lilo or Grub

Tags grub, lilo, vga codes
raises the issue of how do I set, at boot, the resolution of my consoles (tty’s); not just during boot, but for afterwards too.
This got me thinking about a chart of the “vga=” codes that are available.

Google Search Results For: “VGA Resolution”+”Lilo”+”Grub”123
Images:             https://goo.gl/S7BvTX
All Categories: https://goo.gl/0rsMwu
All Video:           https://goo.gl/c0FmoR
Back | Track:    http://goo.gl/Vepgvl
Here is The Console Video-Mode Charts :
— In Depth —



VGA Resolution and Color Depth reference Chart:

Depth 800×600 1024×768 1152×864 1280×1024 1600×1200
8 bit vga=771 vga=773 vga=353 vga=775 vga=796
16 bit vga=788 vga=791 vga=355 vga=794 vga=798
24 bit vga=789 vga=792 vga=795 vga=795 vga=799

t5_resolution chartLunix-Console-vga-resolution-chartcommon_resolutions



 

Width-Height-Depth	VGA Codes	HEX Codes
80x25 (TEXT)		3840		0xF00
80x50 (TEXT)		3841		0xF01
80x43 (TEXT)		3842		0xF02
80x28 (TEXT)		3843		0xF03
80x30 (TEXT)		3845		0xF05
80x34 (TEXT)		3846		0xF06
80x60 (TEXT)		3847		0xF07

320x200x8		816		0x330
320x200x16		782		0x30E
320x200x24		783		0x30F

320x240x8		820		0x334
320x240x16		821		0x335
320x240x24		822		0x336

320x400x8		817		0x331
320x400x16		818		0x332
320x400x24		819		0x333

640x400x8		768		0x300
640x400x16		829		0x33d
640x400x24		830		0x33e

640x480x8		769		0x301
640x480x16		785		0x311
640x480x24		786		0x312


Width-Height-Depth	VGA Codes	HEX Codes
768x480x8		866		0x362
768x480x16		???		????
768x480x24		???		????

800x600x8		771		0x303
800x600x16		788		0x314
800x600x24		789		0x315

1024x768x8		773		0x305
1024x768x16		791		0x317
1024x768x24		792		0x318

1280x800x8		864		0x360
1280x800x16		???		????
1280x800x24		865		0x361

1280x1024x8            775             0x307
1280x1024x16           794             0x31a
1280x1024x24           795             0x31b

1440x900x8		868		0x364
1440x900x16		???		????
1440x900x24		869		0x365

1600x1200x8            796             0x372
1600x1200x16           798             0x374
1600x1200x24           799             0x375


  Mode 0x0300: 640x400 (+640), 8 bits
  Mode 0x0301: 640x480 (+640), 8 bits
  Mode 0x0303: 800x600 (+800), 8 bits
  Mode 0x0305: 1024x768 (+1024), 8 bits
  Mode 0x0307: 1280x1024 (+1280), 8 bits
  Mode 0x030e: 320x200 (+640), 16 bits
  Mode 0x030f: 320x200 (+1280), 24 bits
  Mode 0x0311: 640x480 (+1280), 16 bits
  Mode 0x0312: 640x480 (+2560), 24 bits
  Mode 0x0314: 800x600 (+1600), 16 bits
  Mode 0x0315: 800x600 (+3200), 24 bits
  Mode 0x0317: 1024x768 (+2048), 16 bits
  Mode 0x0318: 1024x768 (+4096), 24 bits
  Mode 0x031a: 1280x1024 (+2560), 16 bits
  Mode 0x031b: 1280x1024 (+5120), 24 bits
  Mode 0x0330: 320x200 (+320), 8 bits
  Mode 0x0331: 320x400 (+320), 8 bits
  Mode 0x0332: 320x400 (+640), 16 bits
  Mode 0x0333: 320x400 (+1280), 24 bits
  Mode 0x0334: 320x240 (+320), 8 bits
  Mode 0x0335: 320x240 (+640), 16 bits
  Mode 0x0336: 320x240 (+1280), 24 bits
  Mode 0x033d: 640x400 (+1280), 16 bits
  Mode 0x033e: 640x400 (+2560), 24 bits
  Mode 0x0345: 1600x1200 (+1600), 8 bits
  Mode 0x0346: 1600x1200 (+3200), 16 bits
  Mode 0x0347: 1400x1050 (+1400), 8 bits
  Mode 0x0348: 1400x1050 (+2800), 16 bits
  Mode 0x0349: 1400x1050 (+5600), 24 bits
  Mode 0x034a: 1600x1200 (+6400), 24 bits
  Mode 0x0352: 2048x1536 (+8192), 24 bits
  Mode 0x0360: 1280x800 (+1280), 8 bits
  Mode 0x0361: 1280x800 (+5120), 24 bits
  Mode 0x0362: 768x480 (+768), 8 bits
  Mode 0x0364: 1440x900 (+1440), 8 bits
  Mode 0x0365: 1440x900 (+5760), 24 bits
  Mode 0x0368: 1680x1050 (+1680), 8 bits
  Mode 0x0369: 1680x1050 (+6720), 24 bits
  Mode 0x037b: 1280x720 (+5120), 24 bits
  Mode 0x037c: 1920x1200 (+1920), 8 bits
  Mode 0x037d: 1920x1200 (+7680), 24 bits

 



 

Note: sometimes, some buggy video cards incorrectly give Grub the wrong preferred resolution – if the preferred mode is much higher than you were expecting, then select the nearest mode in the list displayed that you were expecting.

Note: the preferred mode has to be among those listed by vbeinfo. For example, if your preferred mode is 1920×1080 (a common 16×9 aspect ratio setting), your preferred mode is NOT supported by vbeinfo and may not work correctly. In fact, there do not seem to be any 16×9 modes supported by vbeinfo, as of Ubuntu 13.04. In that case you could try falling back to something common like 640×480, which, it seems most monitors support and vbeinfo supports. Also, not all the modes supported by vbeinfo are necessarily supported by your monitor and you may have to experiment.


Linux Grub VGA Boot Modes Screen Resolution is problematic. SO, How do I tell GRUB2 to set its resolution (and also the one passed to the kernel) to the maximum one it can detect at time of boot?

I presume the reason you are asking about this is that you use different monitors on the same Ubuntu machine and you want GRUB2 to look good on all of them. However, if you are concerned about the resolution used once Ubuntu boots, this does not address that. GRUB2 does not “pass on to the kernel” the resolution it selects for the boot menu.

Edit /etc/default/grub as root. You may want to back it up first:

sudo cp /etc/default/grub /etc/default/grub.old

(You would run that in the Terminal, which you can open by pressing Ctrl+Alt+T.)

To edit it with Gedit as root run:

gksu gedit /etc/default/grub

(Or if you’re using Kubuntu, run kdesudo kate /etc/default/grub instead.)

You’ll get a lot of messages in the Terminal, if you run that command in the Terminal rather than with Alt+F2. You’ll notice they don’t say they pertain to the file you’re editing, so that’s fine.

You’ll find that part of the file says something like this:

# The resolution used on graphical terminal
# note that you can use only modes which your graphic card supports via VBE
# you can see them in real GRUB with the command `vbeinfo'
#GRUB_GFXMODE=640x480

Uncomment (i.e., remove the leading # from) the line that says GRUB_GFXMODE, and change the resolution from 640x480 to auto. The line should now read:
GRUB_GFXMODE=auto

Save the file and quit the editor. In the Terminal, run:
sudo update-grub

(This must be run after every modification to /etc/default/grub, to apply the changes.)

Now reboot, and see if that does what you want.

It might not (as it uses the “platform default” which might not be the highest possible). If that is the case, edit /etc/default/grub again, and this time change the line so it says something like:

GRUB_GFXMODE=1600x1200,1280x1024,1024x768,800x600,640x480

You will not necessarily want to use exactly that line. You should list all the resolutions you want to be tried, in the order you want them to be tried. The resolutions I have listed are the most standard resolutions for monitors with a 4:3 aspect ratio, but widescreen monitors (including most laptop screens these days) have different form factors and use different resolutions. Wikipedia has a VGA Boot modes to set screen resolution | Grub Configurations which may help you. If you know the specific resolutions you want for each device, you can just list them (highest first). You should probably include 640x480 or auto at the end . I recommend this because I don’t know if GRUB2 will always try a safe low resolution, if you don’t include that.

Then save the file again, run sudo update-grub again, reboot again, and see if that does what you need.

If it doesn’t, you may be out of luck. GRUB2 doesn’t display video the same way as Ubuntu does once it’s booted. GRUB2 uses VESA BIOS Extensions to display the boot menu with enhanced resolution (and color depth), and a machine’s maximum resolution through VBE is not always as high as the maximum resolution supported by the video card and monitor.

Source: The official GRUB2 documentation. (You’ll notice the version number is 1.99. It’s still GRUB2. A bit confusing, but true.)

There’s also a GUI option available.

Grub Customizer:

Grub Customizer allows to edit, rename, re-order or freeze Grub entries. It also allows to change the background colors of Grub menu or add a custom picture and supports BURG customization also. You can also use Grub Customizer from a Live CD/USB environment to fix your boot issues.

Installation:

Hit Alt+Ctrl+T to open terminal and run following commands:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:danielrichter2007/grub-customizer
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install grub-customizer

How to use:

Once installed, hit Alt+F2, type grub-customizer and hit Enter.

Authenticate by giving your user password.

Once open, click on Preferences in toolbar.

VGA Boot Modes Screen Resolution

Under Appearance tab enable custom resolution, and type auto in the text box.

VGA Boot Modes Screen Resolution

Alternatively under Advanced tab enable GRUB_GFXMODE and type auto in the text field in front of it. You can also specify resolution as a sequence of one or more modes, separated by commas (‘,’) or semicolons (‘;’); each will be tried in turn until one is found. For example:

1440x900,1680x1050,1920x1200,2560x1600

Or specified with depth (8, 16 or 24):

1440x900x16,1680x1050x16,1920x1200x16,2560x1600x16

VGA Boot Modes Screen Resolution

Close the Preferences dialog box and click save on the toolbar of main window. That’s it!

VGA Boot Modes Screen Resolution

To remove Grub Customizer run following commands in terminal:

sudo apt-get autoremove --purge grub-customizer
sudo add-apt-repository -r ppa:danielrichter2007/grub-customizer
sudo apt-get update

List of common resolutions:
VGA Boot Modes Screen Resolution


VESA BIOS Extensions (VBE) is a VESA standard, currently at version 3, that defines the interface that can be used by software to access compliant video boards at high resolutions and bit depths. This is opposed to the “traditional” int 10h BIOS calls, which are limited to resolutions of 640×480 pixels with 16 color (4-bit) depth or less. VBE is made available through the video card’s BIOS, which installs during boot up some interrupt vectors that point to itself.

Most newer cards implement the more capable VBE 3.0 standard. Older versions of VBE provide only a real mode interface, which cannot be used without a significant performance penalty from within protected mode operating systems. Consequently, the VBE standard has almost never been used for writing a video card’s drivers; each vendor has thus had to invent a proprietary protocol for communicating with its own video card. Despite this, it is common that a driver thunk out to the real mode interrupt in order to initialize screen modes and gain direct access to a card’s linear frame buffer, because these tasks would otherwise require handling many hundreds of proprietary variations that exist from card to card.

Standards

VESA BIOS Extensions (VBE core) 2.0 [November 1994]

This standard provides the primary functionality of the VESA BIOS Extensions. It allows applications to determine the capabilities of the graphics card and provides the ability to set the display modes that are found. VBE 2.0 adds some new features above the prior VBE 1.2 standard including linear framebuffer access and protected mode banking. Some of the VBE Core 2.0 features include:

Linear framebuffer access
Enables direct framebuffer access in protected mode as one large area of memory instead of less efficient smaller chunks.
Protected mode banking
Allows access to the framebuffer from protected mode without “thunking” down to real mode.
Super VGA page flipping
Allows higher performance animation to provide for smooth animation for computer games and other high performance graphics programs.
Super VGA virtual screens
Allows software to set up virtual display resolutions, larger than the actual displayed resolution, and smoothly scroll or pan around the larger image.
High Color and TrueColor modes
Industry standard 16-bit and 24-bit graphics modes for resolutions from 320×200 up to 1,600×1,200.

VESA BIOS Extensions (VBE core) 3.0 [September 1998]

A superset of the VBE 2.0 standard. This standard adds refresh rate control, facilities for stereo glasses, improved multi-buffering and other functions to the VBE 2.0 standard.

Triple buffering
Allows high speed applications to perform multi-buffering with less screen flickering and without having to wait for the graphics controller.
Refresh rate control using GTF timings
This allows applications and operating system utilities to change the refresh rate in a standard way on all VBE 3.0 graphics controllers. Important for stereo applications, since when stereo is enabled, the user’s effective refresh rate is cut in half.
Stereo page flipping
When viewing an application using stereo glasses, software needs to page flip twice as often as normal, because it needs to generate separate images for each eye. This new feature allows stereo compatible software to display properly.
Hardware stereo sync
Allows stereo software to determine if there is a connector for stereo glasses on the user’s graphics card.

VBE/accelerator functions (VBE/AF) [August 1996]

VBE/AF provides a low-level, standard interface to common acceleration functions available on most hardware. Some of the functions defined in the standard are access to hardware cursors, Bit Block Transfers (Bit Blt), off screen sprites, hardware panning, drawing and other functions.

Supplemental specifications

Supplemental specifications provides device independent interface between application software and Super VGA hardware. Function numbers are assigned by VESA Software Standards Committee (SSC).

Power management extensions (PM)

Further information: VESA Display Power Management Signaling

DPMS is a hardware standard that allows graphics cards to communicate with DPMS-compliant monitors via a special signaling system that can be used with existing graphics controllers and monitor cables. This signaling system allows the graphics card to tell the monitor to go into a number of different power management or power saving states, which effectively allow the monitor to turn itself off when it is not in use.

Flat panel interface extensions (FP)

Allows access to special features in flat panel controllers.

Audio interface extensions (AI)

Provides standard to audio services.

Currently (version 1.00), the VBE/AI specification defines three device classes: WAVE, MIDI, and VOLUME. Device types not covered:

CDROM control
which is covered by the Microsoft’s CD-ROM Extensions.
Effects processors
This class of device will be expanded in future version of the VBE/AI specification.

OEM extensions

Provides standard entry to vendor specific extensions.

Display Data Channel (DDC)

Main article: Display Data Channel

The Display Data Channel or DDC is a digital connection between a computer display and a graphics adapter that allows the display to communicate its specifications to the adapter. The standard was created by VESA.

Serial Control Interface (SCI)

Provides hardware independent means for operating system and application to read and write data over I²C serial control interface.

VBE mode numbers

Although mode number is a 16-bit value, the optional VBE mode numbers are 14 bits wide. Bit 15 is used by VGA BIOS as a flag to clear or preserve display memory. VBE defined mode numbers as follows:

Bit Meaning
0–8 Mode numbers. If bit 8 is 1, it is a VESA defined VBE mode.
9-10 Reserved for expansion. Must be set to 0.
11 Refresh rate control Select. If set to 1, use user specified CRTC values for refresh rate, otherwise use BIOS default refresh rate.
12–13 Reserved for VBE/AF. Must be set to 0.
14 Linear/Flat Frame Buffer Select. If set to 1, use linear frame buffer, otherwise use banked frame buffer.
15 Preserve Display Memory Select. If set to 1, preserve display memory, otherwise clear display memory.

Starting in VBE/Core 2.0, VESA no longer defines new VESA mode numbers and no longer requires a device to implement the old numbers. To properly detect information of a screen mode, use Function 01h – Return VBE Mode Information.

Mode 81FFh is a special video mode designed to preserve current memory contents and give access to the entire video memory.

Modes defined by VESA

Beginning with the VBE 2.0 standard, no new modes will be defined by VESA, and old modes are no longer mandatory. The use of defined modes should be considered deprecated: modern video cards may or may not use these mode numbers (even though most do for backward compatibility), and modern software should not use them. The correct way for software to discover available display modes is to obtain a list of modes (using “Function 00h – Return VBE Controller Information”) and then to check each mode (using “Function 01h: Return VBE Mode Information”) until it finds the mode/s it requires.[citation needed]

Graphics modes 320×200 640×400 640×480 800×600 1024×768 1280×1024
16-color palette 258 (0102h), 106 (6Ah) 260 (0104h) 262 (0106h)
256-color palette 256 (0100h) 257 (0101h) 259 (0103h) 261 (0105h) 263 (0107h)
15-bit (5:5:5) 269 (010Dh) 272 (0110h) 275 (0113h) 278 (0116h) 281 (0119h)
16-bit (5:6:5) 270 (010Eh) 273 (0111h) 276 (0114h) 279 (0117h) 282 (011Ah)
24-bit (8:8:8) 271 (010Fh) 274 (0112h) 277 (0115h) 280 (0118h) 283 (011Bh)

Modes 264–268 are text modes. 264 (0108h) is 80 columns × 60 rows (80×60), 265 (0109h) is 132×25, 266 (010Ah) is 132×43, 267 (010Bh) is 132×50 and 268 (010Ch) is 132×60.

Text modes Columns
Rows 80 132
25 265 (0109h)
43 266 (010Ah)
50 267 (010Bh)
60 264 (0108h) 268 (010Ch)

Other commonly available graphics modes

The table below combines the modes defined by VESA (the values denoted in black) along with modes commonly used, but which may not work on all graphics cards as they are not defined by any standard (denoted in red).

Graphics modes 320×200 640×400 640×480 800×500 800×600 896×672 1,024×640 1,024×768 1,152×720 1,280×1,024 1,440×900 1,600×1,200
16-color palette [1] [1] 258 (0102h),
106 (6Ah)
260 (0104h) 262 (0106h)
256-color palette [1] 256 (0100h) 257 (0101h) 367 (016Fh) 259 (0103h) 303 (012Fh) 362 (016Ah) 261 (0105h) 357 (0165h) 263 (0107h) 352 (0160h) [2] 284 (011Ch)
15-bit (5:5:5) 269 (010Dh) 289 (0121h) 272 (0110h) 368 (0170h) 275 (0113h) 304 (0130h) 363 (016Bh) 278 (0116h) 358 (0166h) 281 (0119h) 353 (0161h) 285 (011Dh)
16-bit (5:6:5) 270 (010Eh) 290 (0122h) 273 (0111h) 369 (0171h) 276 (0114h) 305 (0131h) 364 (016Ch) 279 (0117h) 359 (0167h) 282 (011Ah) 354 (0162h) 286 (011Eh)
24-bit (8:8:8) 271 (010Fh) 291 (0123h) 274 (0112h) 370 (0172h) 277 (0115h) 306 (0132h) 365 (016Dh) 280 (0118h) 360 (0168h) 283 (011Bh) 355 (0163h) 287 (011Fh)
32-bit (8:8:8) [3] 292 (0124h) 297 (0129h) 371 (0173h) 302 (012Eh) 307 (0133h) 366 (016Eh) 312 (0138h) 361 (0169h) 317 (013Dh) 356 (0164h) 322 (0142h) [4]
  • Modes available via the traditional 10h BIOS call
  • 352 (0160h) also appears to select 1,280×800 (8-bit) for various laptops’ displays
  • 32-bit is really (8:8:8:8), but the final 8-bit number is an “empty” alpha channel. It is otherwise equal to 24-bit color. Many GPUs use 32-bit color mode instead of 24-bit mode merely for faster video memory access through 32-bit memory alignment.
  1. 322 (0142h) is 1,400×1,050

Linux video mode numbers

The Linux kernel allows user configuration of VESA modes at boot time using a kernel boot parameter, either specified by the framebuffer driver itself or via the ‘vga=’ boot parameter (if applicable to the framebuffer driver; see the kernel documentation in Documentation/svga.txt and Documentation/fb/vesafb.txt ). In the latter case, the Linux video mode value is passed to the kernel in either the form of ‘vga=XXX’, where XXX is the decimal value, or in form of ‘vga=0xHHH’, where HHH is the hexadecimal value. However, the ‘vga=’ boot parameter does not directly accept VESA video mode numbers; rather, the Linux video mode number is the VESA number plus 512 (in the case of the decimal representation) or plus 0x200 (in the case of the hexadecimal representation). For example, the defined VESA value of 257 (0x101), representing 640×480 and 256 colours, has an equivalent Linux video mode value of 769 (0x301).

As indicated earlier, the VESA standard defines a limited set of modes; in particular, none above 1,280×1,024 are covered and, instead, their implementation is completely optional for graphics adapter manufacturers. As vendors are free to utilize whatever additional values they please, this means that, in the table below, the modes denoted in red (and expressed in decimal form) may not apply to your graphics adapter!

320×

200

640×

400

640×

480

800×

500

800×

600

896×

672

1,024×

640

1,024×

768

1,152×

720

1,280×

1,024

1,400×

1,050

1,440×

900

1,600×

1,200

1,920×

1,200

16 colors 770 772 774
256 colors 768 769 879 771 815 874 773 869 775 835 864 796 893
15-bit (5:5:5) 781 801 784 880 787 816 875 790 870 793 865 797
16-bit (5:6:5) 782 802 785 881 788 817 876 791 871 794 837 866 798
24-bit (8:8:8) 783 803 786 882 789 818 877 792 872 795 838 867 799
32-bit (8:8:8)1 804 809 883 814 819 878 824 873 829 868 834

1: 32-bit is really (8:8:8:8), but the final 8-bit number is an “empty” alpha channel. It is otherwise equal to 24-bit color. Many GPUs use 32-bit color mode instead of 24-bit mode merely for faster video memory access through 32-bit memory alignment.

vga=864 [ 352 (0160h)] also appears to select 1,280×800 (8-bit) for various laptops’ displays.
vga=834 [ 322 (0142h)] is 1,400×1,050

Alternative method

hwinfo is the hardware detection tool used in SuSE Linux and in some other GNU/Linux distributions.[1] To use hwinfo to get the actual mode number that you need to pass as a parameter to the kernel:

# hwinfo --framebuffer

The command should be run as root. Pick the number corresponding to the desired resolution. The modes reported by hwinfo are in hexadecimal. Use them with the ‘0x’ prefix or convert them to decimal.

Modes available in Parallels

The VESA BIOS emulation in the Parallels virtual machine has a different set of non-standard VESA modes. As of build 3214, vbetest reveals these modes:

640×

400

640×

480

720×

480

800×

500

800×

600

896×

672

1,024×

640

1,024×

768

1,152×

720

1,280×

1,024

1,440×

900

1,600×

1,200

256 color palette 256 (0100h) 257 (0101h) 367 (016Fh) 364 (016Ch) 259 (0103h) 297 (0129h) 358 (0166h) 261 (0105h) 355 (0163h) 263 (0107h) 352 (0160h) 284 (011Ch)
15-bit (5:5:5) 272 (0110h) 275 (0113h) 278 (0116h) 281 (0119h) 285 (011Dh)
16-bit (5:6:5) 289 (0121h) 273 (0111h) 368 (0170h) 365 (016Dh) 276 (0114h) 298 (012Ah) 359 (0167h) 279 (0117h) 356 (0164h) 282 (011Ah) 353 (0161h) 286 (011Eh)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Main articles: Display resolution and Computer display standard computer graphics.

For the table below, SAR (storage aspect ratio) is based solely on pixel count. It does not take into account PAR (pixel aspect ratio, pixels may be non-square) and thus the DAR (display aspect ratio, the aspect ratio of the actual image that is displayed) may differ.[note 1]

A list of standard designated VGA display resolutions, commonly used in computing and computer monitors, can also be found at Graphics display resolution.

Computer and handheld screens
Standard W

(px)

H

(px)

SAR DAR PAR Pixels
Microvision 16 × 16 1:1 1:1 1:1 256
Timex Datalink USB[1][2] 42 × 11 42:11 1:1 5:9 462
PocketStation 32 × 32 1:1 1:1 1:1 1,024
Etch A Sketch Animator 40 × 30 4:3 4:3 1:1 1,200
Epson RC-20[3] 42 × 32 21:16 1:1 0.762 1,344
GameKing I (GM-218), VMU 48 × 32 3:2 3:2 1:1 1,536
Etch A Sketch Animator 2000 60 × 40 3:2 3:2 1:1 2,400
Hartung Game Master 64 × 64 1:1 1:1 1:1 4,096
Field Technology CxMP Ltd. Smart Watch[2] 72 × 64 9:8 1:1 0.889 4,608
Montblanc e-Strap[4] 128 × 36 32:9 1:1 0.281 4,608
Epoch Game Pocket Computer 75 × 64 75:64 1:1 1:1.171875 4,800
Nokia 3210, and many other early Nokia Phones: List of Nokia products 84 × 48 7:4 2:1 1.143 4,032
Entex Adventure Vision 150 × 40 15:4 3.75 1:1 6,000
First Graphing calculators: Casio fx-7000G, TI-81 96 × 64 3:2 3:2 1:1 6,144
Pokémon mini 96 × 64 3:2 3:2 1:1 6,144
TRS-80 128 × 48 8:3 3:2 0.563 6,144
Nokia Series 40 phones 96 × 65 96:65 3:2 1.016 6,240
MetaWatch Strata & Frame watches 96 × 96 1:1 1:1 1:1 9,216
Ruputer 102 × 64 51:32 8:5 1.004 6,528
Atari Portfolio, TRS-80 Model 100 240 × 64 15:4 3.75 1:1 15,360
Atari Lynx 160 × 102 80:51 8:5 1.02 16,320
Sony SmartWatch, Sifteo cubes 128 × 128 1:1 1:1 1:1 16,384
(QQVGA) 160 × 120 4:3 4:3 1:1 19,200
Nintendo Game Boy, Game Boy Color (GB); Sega Game Gear (GG) 160 × 144 10:9 10:9 1:1 23,040
Pebble E-Paper Watch 144 × 168 6:7 6:7 1:1 24,192
Neo Geo Pocket Color 160 × 152 20:19 20:19 1:1 24,320
Palm LoRES 160 × 160 1:1 1:1 1:1 25,600
Apple II HiRes (6 color) and Apple IIe Double HiRes (16 color), grouping subpixels 140 × 192 35:48 4:3 1.828 26,880
VIC-II multicolor, IBM PCjr 16-color, Amstrad CPC 160 × 200 4:5 4:3 5:3 32,000
WonderSwan 224 × 144 14:9 14:9 1:1 32,256
Nokia Series 60 smartphones (Nokia 7650, plus First and Second Edition models only) 208 × 176 13:11 13:11 1:1 36,608
Nintendo Game Boy Advance (HQVGA) 240 × 160 3:2 3:2 1:1 38,400
Older Java MIDP devices like Sony Ericsson K600 220 × 176 5:4 5:4 1:1 38,720
Acorn BBC 20 column modes 160 × 256 5:8 4:3 2.133 40,960
Nokia 5500 Sport 208 × 208 1:1 1:1 1:1 43,264
TMS9918 Modes 1 (e.g. TI-99/4a) and 2, ZX Spectrum, MSX, Nintendo DS (each screen) 256 × 192 4:3 4:3 1:1 49,152
Apple II HiRes (1 bit per pixel) 280 × 192 35:24 4:3 0.914 53,760
Samsung Gear Fit 432 × 128 27:8 1:1 0.296 55,296
Apple iPod Nano 6G 240 × 240 1:1 1:1 1:1 57,600
Atari 400/800 320 × 192 5:3 5:3 1:1 61,440
CGA 4-color, Atari ST 16 color, Commodore 64 VIC-II Hires, Amiga OCS NTSC Lowres, Apple IIGS LoRes, MCGA 320 × 200 8:5 4:3 0.833 64,000
Elektronika BK 256 × 256 1:1 1:1 1:1 65,536
UIQ 2.x based smartphones 320 × 208 20:13 3:2 0.975 66,560
Sega Nomad, Neo Geo AES 320 × 224 10:7 3:2 1.05 71,680
QVGA, Mega Drive, Nintendo 3DS (lower screen) 320 × 240 4:3 4:3 1:1 76,800
Acorn BBC 40 column modes, Amiga OCS PAL Lowres 320 × 256 5:4 5:4 1:1 81,920
Apple Watch 38mm 272 × 340 4:5 4:5 1:1 92,480
WQVGA (common on Windows Mobile 6 handsets) 400 × 240 5:3 5:3 1:1 96,000
Palm (PDA) HiRES, Samsung Galaxy Gear 320 × 320 1:1 1:1 1:1 102,400
WQVGA, Apple iPod Nano 7G 432 × 240 9:5 9:5 1:1 103,680
Apple IIe Double Hires (1 bit per pixel)[5] 560 × 192 35:12 4:3 0.457 107,520
TurboExpress 400 × 270 40:27 3:2 1.013 108,000
Common Intermediate Format 384 × 288 4:3 4:3 1:1 110,592
A WQVGA variant, used commonly for Portable DVD Players, Digital photo frames, GPS receivers and devices such as the Kenwood DNX-5120, and Glospace SGK-70. Often falsely marketed as “16:9” 480 × 234 80:39 16:9 0.866 112,320
Teletext and Viewdata 40×25 character screens (PAL non-interlaced) 480 × 250 48:25 4:3 0.694 120,000
Quarter SVGA (selectable in some PC shooters) 400 × 300 4:3 4:3 1:1 120,000
Apple iPod Nano 5G 376 × 240 47:30 14:9 0.993 90,240
Apple Watch 42mm 312 × 390 4:5 4:5 1:1 121,680
Atari ST 4 color, CGA mono, Amiga OCS NTSC Hires, Apple IIGS HiRes, Nokia Series 80 smartphones 640 × 200 16:5 4:3 0.417 128,000
Sony PlayStation Portable, Zune HD, Neo Geo X 480 × 272 30:17 16:9 1.007 130,560
Elektronika BK, Polyplay 512 × 256 2:1 2:1 1:1 131,072
Nokia Series 60 smartphones (E60, E70, N80, N90) 416 × 352 13:11 13:11 1:1 146,432
HVGA, Handheld PC 640 × 240 8:3 8:3 1:1 153,600
HVGA, Palm Tungsten T3 Apple iPhone, Palm (PDA) HiRES+ 480 × 320 3:2 3:2 1:1 153,600
Acorn BBC 80 column modes, Amiga OCS PAL Hires 640 × 256 5:2 4:3 0.533 163,840
Black & white Macintosh (9″) 512 × 342 256:171 3:2 1.002 175,104
Nintendo 3DS (upper screen in 3D mode) (2× 400 × 240, one for each eye) 800 × 240 10:3 5:3 0.5 192,000
Macintosh LC (12″)/Color Classic (also selectable in many PC shooters) 512 × 384 4:3 4:3 1:1 196,608
Nokia Series 90 smartphones (7700, 7710) 640 × 320 2:1 2:1 1:1 204,800
EGA 640 × 350 64:35 4:3 0.729 224,000
nHD, used by Nokia 5800, Nokia 5530, Nokia X6, Nokia N97, Nokia N8[6] 640 × 360 16:9 16:9 1:1 230,400
Teletext and Viewdata 40×25 character screens (PAL interlaced) 480 × 500 24:25 4:3 1.389 240,000
HGC 720 × 348 60:29 4:3 0.644 250,560
MDA 720 × 350 72:35 4:3 0.648 252,000
Atari ST mono, Amiga OCS NTSC Hires interlaced 640 × 400 8:5 4:3 0.833 256,000
Apple Lisa 720 × 364 180:91 4:3 0.674 262,080
Nokia E90 Communicator 800 × 352 25:11 25:11 1:1 281,600
some older monitors 600 × 480 5:4 5:4 1:1 288,000
VGA, MCGA (in monochome), Sun-1 color 640 × 480 4:3 4:3 1:1 307,200
Amiga OCS PAL Hires interlaced 640 × 512 5:4 4:3 1.066 327,680
Wide VGA (WVGA) 768 × 480 8:5 8:5 1:1 368,640
Wide VGA, List of mobile phones with WVGA display (WGA) 800 × 480 5:3 5:3 1:1 384,000
Wide PAL, 848 × 480 53:30 16:9 1.006 407,040
List of mobile phones with FWVGA display (FWVGA) 854 × 480 427:240 16:9 0.999 409,920
Super VGA (SVGA) 800 × 600 4:3 4:3 1:1 480,000
Quarter FHD,[7][unreliable source?] (AACS ICT), HRHD, Motorola Atrix 4G, Sony XEL-1 (qHD) 960 × 540 16:9 16:9 1:1 518,400
Apple Macintosh Half Megapixel[8] 832 × 624 4:3 4:3 1:1 519,168
PlayStation Vita 960 × 544 30:17 16:9 1.007 522,240
PAL 16:9 1024 × 576 16:9 16:9 1:1 589,824
WSVGA 1024 × 600 128:75 16:9 1.041 614,400
Apple iPhone 4S,[9][unreliable source?][10] 4th Generation iPod Touch[11] (DVGA) 960 × 640 3:2 3:2 1:1 614,400
close to WSVGA 1024 × 640 8:5 8:5 1:1 655,360
Panasonic DVCPRO100 for 50/60Hz over 720p – SMPTE Resolution 960 × 720 4:3 4:3 1:1 691,200
Apple iPhone 5 (Retina display) 1136 × 640 71:40 16:9 1.001 727,040
Common on 14″/15″ TFT’s and the Apple iPad (XGA) 1024 × 768 4:3 4:3 1:1 786,432
Sun-1 monochrome 1024 × 800 32:25 4:3 1.041 819,200
(supported by some GPUs, monitors, and games) 1152 × 720 8:5 8:5 1:1 829,440
Apple PowerBook G4 (original Titanium version) 1152 × 768 3:2 3:2 1:1 884,736
720p (WXGA-H, min.) 1280 × 720 16:9 16:9 1:1 921,600
NeXT MegaPixel Display 1120 × 832 35:26 4:3 0.99 931,840
Wide XGA avg., BrightView (WXGA) 1280 × 768 5:3 5:3 1:1 983,040
Apple XGA[note 2] (XGA+) 1152 × 864 4:3 4:3 1:1 995,328
Apple iPhone 6 1334 × 750 667:375 16:9 0.999 1,000,500
Wide XGA max. (WXGA) 1280 × 800 8:5 8:5 1:1 1,024,000
Sun-2 Prime Monochrome or Color Video, also common in Sun-3 and Sun-4 workstations 1152 × 900 32:25 32:25 1:1 1,036,800
Network Computing Devices 1024 × 1024 1:1 1:1 1:1 1,048,576
standardized HDTV 720p/1080i displays or “HD ready”, used in most cheaper notebooks 1366 × 768 683:384 16:9 0.999 1,049,088
Apple PowerBook G4 1280 × 854 640:427 3:2 1.001 1,093,120
Sony VAIO P series 1600 × 768 25:12 25:12 1:1 1,228,800
(SXGA−) 1280 × 960 4:3 4:3 1:1 1,228,800
Wide SXGA or Wide XGA+ (WSXGA) 1440 × 900 8:5 8:5 1:1 1,296,000
(SXGA) 1280 × 1024 5:4 5:4 1:1 1,310,720
Apple PowerBook G4 1440 × 960 3:2 3:2 1:1 1,382,400
900p (HD+) 1600 × 900 16:9 16:9 1:1 1,440,000
(SXGA+) 1400 × 1050 4:3 4:3 1:1 1,470,000
similar to A4 paper format 1440 × 1024 45:32 7:5 0.996 1,474,560
HDV 1080i 1440 × 1080 4:3 4:3 1:1 1,555,200
SGI 1600SW 1600 × 1024 25:16 25:16 1:1 1,638,400
Sun3 Hi-res monochrome 1600 × 1280 5:4 5:4 1:1 2,048,000
(WSXGA+) 1680 × 1050 8:5 8:5 1:1 1,764,000
(UXGA) 1600 × 1200 4:3 4:3 1:1 1,920,000
HD 1080 (1080i, 1080p), FullHD (FHD) 1920 × 1080 16:9 16:9 1:1 2,073,600
(WUXGA) 1920 × 1200 8:5 8:5 1:1 2,304,000
Microsoft Surface 3 (Full HD Plus) 1920 × 1280 3:2 3:2 1:1 2,457,600
2K (QWXGA) 2048 × 1152 16:9 16:9 1:1 2,359,296
(supported by some GPUs, monitors, and games) 1792 × 1344 4:3 4:3 1:1 2,408,448
(supported by some GPUs, monitors, and games) 1856 × 1392 4:3 4:3 1:1 2,583,552
NEC CRV43,[12] Ostendo CRVD,[13] Alienware Curved Display[14][15] (CWSXGA) 2880 × 900 16:5 16:5 1:1 2,592,000
(supported by some GPUs, monitors, and games) 1800 × 1440 5:4 5:4 1:1 2,592,000
(supported by some GPUs, monitors, and games) 2048 × 1280 8:5 8:5 1:1 2,621,440
Tesselar XGA (TXGA) 1920 × 1400 48:35 7:5 1.021 2,688,000
Avielo Optix SuperWide 235 projector[16] 2538 × 1080 2.35:1 2.35:1 1.017 2,741,040
Cinema TV from Philips and Vizio, Dell UltraSharp U2913WM, ASUS MX299Q, NEC EA294WMi, Philips 298X4QJAB, LG 29EA93, AOC Q2963PM 2560 × 1080 21:9 21:9 1:1 2,764,800
(supported by some GPUs, monitors, and games) 1920 × 1440 4:3 4:3 1:1 2,764,800
Microsoft Surface Pro 3 2160 × 1440 3:2 3:2 1:1 3,110,400
iPad (3rd Generation) QXGA 2048 × 1536 4:3 4:3 1:1 3,145,728
Maximum resolution of the Sony GDM-FW900, Hewlett Packard A7217A and the 2015 Retina Display MacBook 2304 × 1440 8:5 8:5 1:1 3,317,760
Dell UltraSharp U2711, Dell XPS One 27, Apple iMac (QHD) 2560 × 1440 16:9 16:9 1:1 3,686,400
(selectable on some displays and graphics cards[17][unreliable source?][18]) 2304 × 1728 4:3 4:3 1:1 3,981,312
Apple Cinema HD 30, Dell Ultrasharp U3011, Dell 3007WFP, Dell 3008WFP, Gateway XHD3000, Samsung 305T, HP LP3065, HP ZR30W, Nexus 10 (WQXGA) 2560 × 1600 8:5 8:5 1:1 4,096,000
Chromebook Pixel 2560 × 1700 128:85 3:2 0.996 4,352,000
Pixel C 2560 × 1800 64:45 64:45 1:1 4,608,000
(max. CRT resolution. Supported by the Viewsonic P225f and some graphics cards) 2560 × 1920 4:3 4:3 1:1 4,915,200
LG UltraWide 34UM95 3440 × 1440 43:18 21:9 0.992 4,953,600
Microsoft Surface Pro 4 2736 × 1824 3:2 3:2 1:1 4,990,464
Apple 15″MacBook Pro’s Retina Display 2880 × 1800 8:5 8:5 1:1 5,184,000
(QSXGA) 2560 × 2048 5:4 5:4 1:1 5,242,880
iPad Pro 2732 × 2048 4:3 4:3 0.999 5,595,136
(QSXGA+) 2800 × 2100 4:3 4:3 1:1 5,880,000
HP Envy TouchSmart 14, Fujitsu Lifebook UH90/L, Lenovo Yoga 2 Pro (WQXGA+) 3200 × 1800 16:9 16:9 1:1 5,760,000
Microsoft Surface Book 3000 × 2000 3:2 3:2 1:1 6,000,000
(WQSXGA) 3200 × 2048 25:16 25:16 1:1 6,553,600
(QUXGA) 3200 × 2400 4:3 4:3 1:1 7,680,000
2160p (4K UHD) 3840 × 2160 16:9 16:9 1:1 8,294,400
(IBM T221 WQUXGA) 3840 × 2400 8:5 8:5 1:1 9,216,000
(4K) 4096 × 2304 16:9 16:9 1:1 9,437,184
(21:9 aspect ratio TVs, 5K) 5120 × 2160 21:9 21:9 1:1 11,059,200
(HXGA) 4096 × 3072 4:3 4:3 1:1 12,582,912
(Dell UP2715K, Apple 27″iMac’s 5K Retina Display (UHD+)) 5120 × 2880 16:9 16:9 1:1 14,745,600
(WHXGA) 5120 × 3200 8:5 8:5 1:1 16,384,000
(HSXGA) 5120 × 4096 5:4 5:4 1:1 20,971,520
(WHSXGA) 6400 × 4096 25:16 25:16 1:1 26,214,400
(HUXGA) 6400 × 4800 4:3 4:3 1:1 30,720,000
4320p (8K UHD) 7680 × 4320 16:9 16:9 1:1 33,177,600
(WHUXGA) 7680 × 4800 8:5 8:5 1:1 36,864,000
(8K) 8192 × 4608 16:9 16:9 1:1 37,748,736
(8K Fulldome) 8192 × 8192 1:1 1:1 1:1 67,108,864

Television Resolutions:
VGA Boot Modes Screen Resolution

For television, the display aspect ratio (DAR) is shown, not the storage aspect ratio (SAR); analog television does not have well-defined pixels, while several digital television standards have non-square pixels.

Analog TV standards

Analog broadcast television systems
Standard Resolution[19]
(dots × lines)
DAR
(H:V)
Pixels[citation needed]
PAL, SECAM ~520 × 576 4:3 ~299,520
PALplus ~520 × 576 16:9 ~300,000
Undecoded PALplus ~520 × 432 16:9 ~220,000
NTSC ~440 × 480 4:3 ~213,840
Laserdisc ~580 × 480 (NTSC) 4:3 ~268,800
~570 × 576 (PAL/SECAM) ~322,560
Betamax ~320 × 480 (NTSC) 4:3 ~120,000
~310 × 576 (PAL/SECAM) ~144,000
Betamax Superbeta ~380 × 480 (NTSC) 4:3 ~136,800
~370 × 576 (PAL/SECAM) ~164,160
VHS ~320 × 480 (NTSC) 4:3 ~153,600
~310 × 576 (PAL/SECAM) ~178,560
S-VHS ~530 × 480 (NTSC) 4:3 ~192,000
~520 × 576 (PAL/SECAM) ~230,400

Digital TV standards:
VGA Boot Modes Screen Resolution

Digital television standards
Standard Resolution
(dots × lines)
DAR
(H:V)
Pixels
PixelVision 120 × 90 4:3 10,800
Video CD 352 × 240 (NTSC) 4:3 84,480
352 × 288 (PAL) 101,376
UMD 480 × 272 ~16:9 (30:17) 130,560
China Video Disc 352 × 480 (NTSC) 4:3 or 16:9 168,960
352 × 576 (PAL) 202,725
SVCD 480 × 480 (NTSC) 4:3 or 16:9 230,400
480 × 576 (PAL) 276,480
SDTV 480i, EDTV 480p, SMPTE 293M 640 × 480 4:3 or 16:9 or 3:2 307,200
704 × 480 337,920
720 × 480 345,600
852 × 480 408,960
SDTV 576i, EDTV 576p 480 × 576 4:3 or 16:9 276,480
544 × 576 313,344
704 × 576 405,504
720 × 576 414,720
768 × 576 442,368
DVD 720 × 480 (NTSC) 4:3 or 16:9 345,600
720 × 576 (PAL) 414,720
720p (HDTV) 1280 × 720 16:9 921,600
1366 × 768 (FWXGA) 1,049,088
1080i, 1080p (HDTV, Blu-ray) 1920 × 1080 16:9 2,073,600
2160p (UHDTV) 3840 × 2160 16:9 8,294,400
4320p (UHDTV) 7680 × 4320 16:9 33,177,600

Films

Digital film standards
Standard Resolution DAR Pixels
Digital Cinema 2x 2048 × 858 2.39:1 1,757,184
Digital Cinema 2x 1998 × 1080 1.85:1 2,157,840
Academy 2x 1828 × 1332 1.37:1 2,434,896
Full Aperture Native 2x 2048 × 1556 1.32:1 3,186,688
Digital cinema 4x 4096 × 1714 2.39:1 7,020,544
Digital cinema 4x 3996 × 2160 1.85:1 8,631,360
Digital Cinema Initiatives 4x (native resolution) 4096 × 2160 1.90:1 8,847,360
Academy 4x 3656 × 2664 1.37:1 9,739,584
Full Aperture 4x 4096 × 3112 1.32:1 12,746,752
6K[20] 6144 × 3160 1.94:1 19,415,040
IMAX Digital[21] 5616 × 4096 1.37:1 23,003,136
Red Epic 617 28000 × 9334 3:1 261,352,000

The below distinguish SAR (aspect ratio of pixel dimensions), DAR (aspect ratio of displayed image dimensions), and the corresponding PAR (aspect ratio of individual pixels), though it currently contains some errors (inconsistencies), as flagged.

Post-production digital working resolutions
Standard Resolution SAR DAR PAR Pixels
DV NTSC 720 × 480 3:2 4:3 10:11[citation needed] 345,600
D1 NTSC 720 × 486 40:27 4:3 9:10 349,920
DV PAL 720 × 576 5:4 4:3 12:11[citation needed] 414,720
D1 PAL 720 × 576 5:4 4:3 16:15 414,720
Panasonic DVCPRO HD 720p 960 × 720 4:3 16:9 4:3 691,200
Panasonic DVCPRO HD 1080, 59.94i 1280 × 1080 32:27 16:9 3:2 1,382,400
Panasonic DVCPRO HD 1080, 50i 1440 × 1080[citation needed] 4:3[citation needed] 16:9[citation needed] 3:2[citation needed] 1,555,200
HDV 1080i/1080p 1440 × 1080 4:3 16:9 4:3 1,555,200
Sony HDCAM (1080) 1440 × 1080[citation needed] 4:3[citation needed] 16:9[citation needed] 3:2[citation needed] 1,555,200
Sony HDCAM SR (1080) 1920 × 1080 16:9 16:9 1:1 2,073,600
Academy 2x 1828 × 1332 1.37:1 1.37:1 1:1 2,434,896
Full Aperture Native 2x 2048 × 1556 1.316 4:3 ~1:1 3,186,688
Academy 4x 3656 × 2664 1.37:1 1.37:1 1:1 9,739,584
Full Aperture 4x 4096 × 3112 1.316 4:3 ~1:1 12,746,752

Video conferencing

Main article: Common Intermediate Format
Video conferencing standards
Standard Resolution SAR Pixels
SQCIF (Sub Quarter CIF) 128 × 96 1.33:1 12,288
QCIF (Quarter CIF) 176 × 144 1.22:1 25,344
CIF (or FCIF) 352 × 288 1.22:1 101,376
4CIF (4 * CIF) 704 × 576 1.22:1 405,504
16CIF (16 * CIF) 1408 × 1152 1.22:1 1,622,016

 

Notes:

LCD panels’ resolutions are often quoted in terms of raw subpixels, misnamed “pixels” in manufacturer’s specifications. Each real pixel includes one subpixel for each of three colors, so calling subpixels “pixels” inflates the claimed resolution by a factor of three. This bit of marketing obfuscation is calculated as horizontal resolution × vertical resolution × 3. For example: 640 × 480 VGA is 921,600 subpixels, or 307,200 pixels, 800 × 600 SVGA is 1,440,000 subpixels, or 480,000 pixels, and 1024 × 768 XGA is 2,359,296 subpixels, but only 786,432 full-color pixels.


VESA BIOS Extensions (VBE) is a VESA standard, currently at version 3, that defines the interface that can be used by software to access compliant video boards at high resolutions and bit depths. This is opposed to the “traditional” int 10h BIOS calls, which are limited to resolutions of 640×480 pixels with 16 color (4-bit) depth or less. VBE is made available through the video card’s BIOS, which installs during boot up some interrupt vectors that point to itself.

Most newer cards implement the more capable VBE 3.0 standard. Older versions of VBE provide only a real mode interface, which cannot be used without a significant performance penalty from within protected mode operating systems. Consequently, the VBE standard has almost never been used for writing a video card’s drivers; each vendor has thus had to invent a proprietary protocol for communicating with its own video card. Despite this, it is common that a driver thunk out to the real mode interrupt in order to initialize screen modes and gain direct access to a card’s linear frame buffer, because these tasks would otherwise require handling many hundreds of proprietary variations that exist from card to card.

Standards

VESA BIOS Extensions (VBE core) 2.0 [November 1994]

This standard provides the primary functionality of the VESA BIOS Extensions. It allows applications to determine the capabilities of the graphics card and provides the ability to set the display modes that are found. VBE 2.0 adds some new features above the prior VBE 1.2 standard including linear framebuffer access and protected mode banking. Some of the VBE Core 2.0 features include:

Linear framebuffer access
Enables direct framebuffer access in protected mode as one large area of memory instead of less efficient smaller chunks.
Protected mode banking
Allows access to the framebuffer from protected mode without “thunking” down to real mode.
Super VGA page flipping
Allows higher performance animation to provide for smooth animation for computer games and other high performance graphics programs.
Super VGA virtual screens
Allows software to set up virtual display resolutions, larger than the actual displayed resolution, and smoothly scroll or pan around the larger image.
High Color and TrueColor modes
Industry standard 16-bit and 24-bit graphics modes for resolutions from 320×200 up to 1,600×1,200.

VESA BIOS Extensions (VBE core) 3.0 [September 1998]

A superset of the VBE 2.0 standard. This standard adds refresh rate control, facilities for stereo glasses, improved multi-buffering and other functions to the VBE 2.0 standard.

Triple buffering
Allows high speed applications to perform multi-buffering with less screen flickering and without having to wait for the graphics controller.
Refresh rate control using GTF timings
This allows applications and operating system utilities to change the refresh rate in a standard way on all VBE 3.0 graphics controllers. Important for stereo applications, since when stereo is enabled, the user’s effective refresh rate is cut in half.
Stereo page flipping
When viewing an application using stereo glasses, software needs to page flip twice as often as normal, because it needs to generate separate images for each eye. This new feature allows stereo compatible software to display properly.
Hardware stereo sync
Allows stereo software to determine if there is a connector for stereo glasses on the user’s graphics card.

VBE/accelerator functions (VBE/AF) [August 1996]

VBE/AF provides a low-level, standard interface to common acceleration functions available on most hardware. Some of the functions defined in the standard are access to hardware cursors, Bit Block Transfers (Bit Blt), off screen sprites, hardware panning, drawing and other functions.

Supplemental specifications

Supplemental specifications provides device independent interface between application software and Super VGA hardware. Function numbers are assigned by VESA Software Standards Committee (SSC).

Power management extensions (PM)

Further information: VESA Display Power Management Signaling

DPMS is a hardware standard that allows graphics cards to communicate with DPMS-compliant monitors via a special signaling system that can be used with existing graphics controllers and monitor cables. This signaling system allows the graphics card to tell the monitor to go into a number of different power management or power saving states, which effectively allow the monitor to turn itself off when it is not in use.

Flat panel interface extensions (FP)

Allows access to special features in flat panel controllers.

Audio interface extensions (AI)

Provides standard to audio services.

Currently (version 1.00), the VBE/AI specification defines three device classes: WAVE, MIDI, and VOLUME. Device types not covered:

CDROM control
which is covered by the Microsoft’s CD-ROM Extensions.
Effects processors
This class of device will be expanded in future version of the VBE/AI specification.

OEM extensions

Provides standard entry to vendor specific extensions.

Display Data Channel (DDC)

Main article: Display Data Channel

The Display Data Channel or DDC is a digital connection between a computer display and a graphics adapter that allows the display to communicate its specifications to the adapter. The standard was created by VESA.

Serial Control Interface (SCI)

Provides hardware independent means for operating system and application to read and write data over I²C serial control interface.

VBE mode numbers

Although mode number is a 16-bit value, the optional VBE mode numbers are 14 bits wide. Bit 15 is used by VGA BIOS as a flag to clear or preserve display memory. VBE defined mode numbers as follows:

Bit Meaning
0–8 Mode numbers. If bit 8 is 1, it is a VESA defined VBE mode.
9-10 Reserved for expansion. Must be set to 0.
11 Refresh rate control Select. If set to 1, use user specified CRTC values for refresh rate, otherwise use BIOS default refresh rate.
12–13 Reserved for VBE/AF. Must be set to 0.
14 Linear/Flat Frame Buffer Select. If set to 1, use linear frame buffer, otherwise use banked frame buffer.
15 Preserve Display Memory Select. If set to 1, preserve display memory, otherwise clear display memory.

Starting in VBE/Core 2.0, VESA no longer defines new VESA mode numbers and no longer requires a device to implement the old numbers. To properly detect information of a screen mode, use Function 01h – Return VBE Mode Information.

Mode 81FFh is a special video mode designed to preserve current memory contents and give access to the entire video memory.

Modes defined by VESA

Beginning with the VBE 2.0 standard, no new modes will be defined by VESA, and old modes are no longer mandatory. The use of defined modes should be considered deprecated: modern video cards may or may not use these mode numbers (even though most do for backward compatibility), and modern software should not use them. The correct way for software to discover available display modes is to obtain a list of modes (using “Function 00h – Return VBE Controller Information”) and then to check each mode (using “Function 01h: Return VBE Mode Information”) until it finds the mode/s it requires.[citation needed]

Graphics modes 320×200 640×400 640×480 800×600 1024×768 1280×1024
16-color palette 258 (0102h), 106 (6Ah) 260 (0104h) 262 (0106h)
256-color palette 256 (0100h) 257 (0101h) 259 (0103h) 261 (0105h) 263 (0107h)
15-bit (5:5:5) 269 (010Dh) 272 (0110h) 275 (0113h) 278 (0116h) 281 (0119h)
16-bit (5:6:5) 270 (010Eh) 273 (0111h) 276 (0114h) 279 (0117h) 282 (011Ah)
24-bit (8:8:8) 271 (010Fh) 274 (0112h) 277 (0115h) 280 (0118h) 283 (011Bh)

Modes 264–268 are text modes. 264 (0108h) is 80 columns × 60 rows (80×60), 265 (0109h) is 132×25, 266 (010Ah) is 132×43, 267 (010Bh) is 132×50 and 268 (010Ch) is 132×60.

Text modes Columns
Rows 80 132
25 265 (0109h)
43 266 (010Ah)
50 267 (010Bh)
60 264 (0108h) 268 (010Ch)

Other commonly available graphics modes

The table below combines the modes defined by VESA (the values denoted in black) along with modes commonly used, but which may not work on all graphics cards as they are not defined by any standard (denoted in red).

Graphics modes 320×200 640×400 640×480 800×500 800×600 896×672 1,024×640 1,024×768 1,152×720 1,280×1,024 1,440×900 1,600×1,200
16-color palette [1] [1] 258 (0102h),
106 (6Ah)
260 (0104h) 262 (0106h)
256-color palette [1] 256 (0100h) 257 (0101h) 367 (016Fh) 259 (0103h) 303 (012Fh) 362 (016Ah) 261 (0105h) 357 (0165h) 263 (0107h) 352 (0160h) [2] 284 (011Ch)
15-bit (5:5:5) 269 (010Dh) 289 (0121h) 272 (0110h) 368 (0170h) 275 (0113h) 304 (0130h) 363 (016Bh) 278 (0116h) 358 (0166h) 281 (0119h) 353 (0161h) 285 (011Dh)
16-bit (5:6:5) 270 (010Eh) 290 (0122h) 273 (0111h) 369 (0171h) 276 (0114h) 305 (0131h) 364 (016Ch) 279 (0117h) 359 (0167h) 282 (011Ah) 354 (0162h) 286 (011Eh)
24-bit (8:8:8) 271 (010Fh) 291 (0123h) 274 (0112h) 370 (0172h) 277 (0115h) 306 (0132h) 365 (016Dh) 280 (0118h) 360 (0168h) 283 (011Bh) 355 (0163h) 287 (011Fh)
32-bit (8:8:8) [3] 292 (0124h) 297 (0129h) 371 (0173h) 302 (012Eh) 307 (0133h) 366 (016Eh) 312 (0138h) 361 (0169h) 317 (013Dh) 356 (0164h) 322 (0142h) [4]
  • Modes available via the traditional 10h BIOS call
  • 352 (0160h) also appears to select 1,280×800 (8-bit) for various laptops’ displays
  • 32-bit is really (8:8:8:8), but the final 8-bit number is an “empty” alpha channel. It is otherwise equal to 24-bit color. Many GPUs use 32-bit color mode instead of 24-bit mode merely for faster video memory access through 32-bit memory alignment.
  1. 322 (0142h) is 1,400×1,050

Linux video mode numbers

The Linux kernel allows user configuration of VESA modes at boot time using a kernel boot parameter, either specified by the framebuffer driver itself or via the ‘vga=’ boot parameter (if applicable to the framebuffer driver; see the kernel documentation in Documentation/svga.txt and Documentation/fb/vesafb.txt ). In the latter case, the Linux video mode value is passed to the kernel in either the form of ‘vga=XXX’, where XXX is the decimal value, or in form of ‘vga=0xHHH’, where HHH is the hexadecimal value. However, the ‘vga=’ boot parameter does not directly accept VESA video mode numbers; rather, the Linux video mode number is the VESA number plus 512 (in the case of the decimal representation) or plus 0x200 (in the case of the hexadecimal representation). For example, the defined VESA value of 257 (0x101), representing 640×480 and 256 colours, has an equivalent Linux video mode value of 769 (0x301).

As indicated earlier, the VESA standard defines a limited set of modes; in particular, none above 1,280×1,024 are covered and, instead, their implementation is completely optional for graphics adapter manufacturers. As vendors are free to utilize whatever additional values they please, this means that, in the table below, the modes denoted in red (and expressed in decimal form) may not apply to your graphics adapter!

320×

200

640×

400

640×

480

800×

500

800×

600

896×

672

1,024×

640

1,024×

768

1,152×

720

1,280×

1,024

1,400×

1,050

1,440×

900

1,600×

1,200

1,920×

1,200

16 colors 770 772 774
256 colors 768 769 879 771 815 874 773 869 775 835 864 796 893
15-bit (5:5:5) 781 801 784 880 787 816 875 790 870 793 865 797
16-bit (5:6:5) 782 802 785 881 788 817 876 791 871 794 837 866 798
24-bit (8:8:8) 783 803 786 882 789 818 877 792 872 795 838 867 799
32-bit (8:8:8)1 804 809 883 814 819 878 824 873 829 868 834

1: 32-bit is really (8:8:8:8), but the final 8-bit number is an “empty” alpha channel. It is otherwise equal to 24-bit color. Many GPUs use 32-bit color mode instead of 24-bit mode merely for faster video memory access through 32-bit memory alignment.

vga=864 [ 352 (0160h)] also appears to select 1,280×800 (8-bit) for various laptops’ displays.
vga=834 [ 322 (0142h)] is 1,400×1,050

Alternative method

hwinfo is the hardware detection tool used in SuSE Linux and in some other GNU/Linux distributions.[1] To use hwinfo to get the actual mode number that you need to pass as a parameter to the kernel:

# hwinfo --framebuffer

The command should be run as root. Pick the number corresponding to the desired resolution. The modes reported by hwinfo are in hexadecimal. Use them with the ‘0x’ prefix or convert them to decimal.

Modes available in Parallels

The VESA BIOS emulation in the Parallels virtual machine has a different set of non-standard VESA modes. As of build 3214, vbetest reveals these modes:

640×

400

640×

480

720×

480

800×

500

800×

600

896×

672

1,024×

640

1,024×

768

1,152×

720

1,280×

1,024

1,440×

900

1,600×

1,200

256 color palette 256 (0100h) 257 (0101h) 367 (016Fh) 364 (016Ch) 259 (0103h) 297 (0129h) 358 (0166h) 261 (0105h) 355 (0163h) 263 (0107h) 352 (0160h) 284 (011Ch)
15-bit (5:5:5) 272 (0110h) 275 (0113h) 278 (0116h) 281 (0119h) 285 (011Dh)
16-bit (5:6:5) 289 (0121h) 273 (0111h) 368 (0170h) 365 (016Dh) 276 (0114h) 298 (012Ah) 359 (0167h) 279 (0117h) 356 (0164h) 282 (011Ah) 353 (0161h) 286 (011Eh)

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