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Tuesday, January 11, 2022

Dell Precision Series Comparability Chart List (Reference)



Reference Website: CompuRAM
https://www.compuram.biz/memory/dell/notebook/precision/

It is about 30 years ago that Dell developed its first PC. Since then it has become one of the most profitable suppliers of hardware and global solutions. The product range of this US company includes, among others, notebooks, PCs, servers, networking and storage systems and addresses the individual requirements of business and private customers.

With the Precision series Dell launched notebooks that are suitable as professional workstations in demanding business environments - with the advantage of optional mobile use. Thanks to its high performance, long battery life, mass storage capacity and scalability, Precision is a reliable companion - also when it comes to graphical or demanding analytics tasks - which provides an integrated docking solution.

Notebook Memory Upgrades for Dell Precision

Sunday, August 29, 2021

How fungi contribute to the ecosystem

 

 

Mycelium - The Future is Fungi

Mycelium - The Future is Fungi

They were here first...

Did you know that long before trees overtook the land, earth was covered by giant mushrooms. Researchers found that land plants had evolved on Earth by about 700 million years ago and land fungi by about 1,300 million years ago. The largest living organism in the world today is a honey fungus measuring 2.4 miles (3.8 km) across in the Blue Mountains in Oregon. 

mushroom.jpeg

 

So what's so special about fungi and how do they contribute to the ecosystem?

Fungi play an important role in energy cycling within, and between, ecosystems. Fungi are found in terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments, and are part of a diverse community of “decomposers” that break down dead plants and animals. Aside from fungi, this community includes bacteria, tiny invertebrates, such as nematodes, and larger invertebrates, like snails, beetles and earthworms. Fungi transform organic matter into forms that can be utilized by other decomposers, and into food for plants.

DECOMPOSITION

Fungi live everywhere that moisture is present. They can be found as single-celled organisms, like yeast, that are invisible to the naked eye, and as multiple-celled organisms, like mushrooms, that are made up of strands of cells called “hyphae.” Fungi are so widespread and numerous that they make up a large proportion of the biomass in any given ecosystem. Fungi play a very important part in the decomposition process, because they can break down tough organic materials, such as cellulose and lignin, which invertebrates find difficult to digest. Fungi release digestive enzymes that are used to metabolize complex organic compounds into soluble nutrients, such as simple sugars, nitrates and phosphates. Unlike animals, that digest food inside their bodies, fungi digest food outside of their “bodies” and then absorb the nutrients into their cells.

NUTRIENT CYCLING

Plants require nutrients for growth, but nutrients are seldom freely available in soil or water because they are locked up in insoluble compounds. Plants therefore rely on decomposers to provide them with soluble nutrients that can be taken up by roots. For instance nitrogen, one of the most important plant nutrients, is locked into proteins that are not easily taken up by plants -- although some plants have been shown to do so. Fungi metabolize proteins, and release inorganic forms of nitrogen, such as nitrate, that can easily be taken up by plant roots. In freshwater environments fungi are instrumental in the transfer of energy from riparian forest to aquatic ecosystems, by decomposing wood and leaf litter that fall into the water. In terrestrial systems, fungi transfer energy from above the ground, to below it, where it is recycled back to plants.

SYMBIOSIS

Some species of fungi form symbiotic relationships with plants. Mycorrhizal fungi are associated with plant roots. This relationship is mutually beneficial because fungi facilitate the transfer of nutrients from the soil into plant roots, and in turn receive carbon from the plant. Carbon is stored by fungi in the soil and therefore is not released as carbon dioxide. It was once thought that plants were the only source of carbon for mycorrhizal fungi. However, an article published in the May 2008 issue of “Functional Ecology” reveals that mycorrhizal fungi can actively decompose organic carbon, and therefore play a greater role in carbon loss and input from soil than previously thought. Lichens are another type of fungi that form a symbiotic relationship, but they do so with cyanobacteria. Lichens provide shelter for the bacteria, which in turn make energy and carbon for lichens via photosynthesis.

FOOD SOURCE

There are many animals that rely partially, or wholly, on fungi as a food source. Herbivorous mammals tend to be opportunistic fungus feeders, eating fungi if they come across it while browsing in the forest. However, for some animals fungi makes up a large part of their diets. Examples are the caribou, which relies heavily on tree lichens for food during the winter when leafy foods are not available, and the long-nosed potoroo, an Australian mammal whose diet consists almost entirely of fungal fruiting bodies. Many invertebrates also eat fungi, both opportunistically and actively. Stream invertebrates receive extra energy when they eat decaying leaves that have fungi growing on them. Banana slugs are commonly observed feeding on mushrooms and other fungi, which they appear to favor over other foods.

The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology. Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a network of fine white filaments (hyphae) .

Mushroom's_roots_(mycélium).jpg

 

The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology. Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a network of fine white filaments (hyphae) .

What is Mycelium?

The word mycelium literally means “more than one”. It is actually a plural form of the word Mycelia.  The word has New Latin and Greek origins and was first coined in text in the early 1800’s, and refers to the thread-like body of a fungus.  The main part of the fungus is the mycelia, which lives inside the substrate (wood, straw, grain, etc). The mushrooms that we eat are actually just a small visible part of the organism. In nature mushrooms "bloom" much like flowers do.  Like flowers, mushrooms bloom during certain times of the year when the conditions are just right.  To properly explain mycelium we have to get a little technical.

Mushrooms do not reproduce by seed or gather energy by photosynthesis like plants do.  They reproduce by means of spores.  These spores germinate to produce a mass of interwoven, single-cell wide structures known as hyphae.  Hyphae are sometimes also called Shiro.  Collectively, masses of hyphae are known as the mycelium. 

Fungus absorbs nutrients from its environment (substrate, log, etc) through its mycelium in a two-stage process.  First, the hyphae secrete enzymes into the decaying wood or other substrate. These enzymes break down biological polymers into smaller units such as monomers.   The mycelium then absorbs these monomers, using a combination of facilitated diffusion and active transport. 

Just like an apple on a tree the mushroom is a fruit of these reproducing fungi.  In nature the chances of mushroom spores germinating and then actually producing a mushroom are quite slim.  Everything has to be just right to actually produce a mushroom.  They don’t just grow everywhere at random.  This is why mushrooms are highly prized and hunted in the wild.  In our sterile laboratory however we can produce mushrooms that are free of contaminates.  Our mycologists cultivate a select species indoor where the mushroom mycelium can grow without the harsh environment nature sometimes provides.  

Cultures can be taken from spores or from the mushroom tissue itself.  In the process of germinating spores, many different strains are formed.  All strains however are not compatible with each other. In taking a culture from the tissue of a living mushroom, the cultivator preserves the exact genetic character of that specific mushroom.  This is also known as cloning.  When spores are used, a single strain must be singled out from the vast array of strains created.  In both cases, the end result is basically a network of cells.  This is the amazing mycelium, the actual organism that produces mushrooms.

Stop, observe and learn from mother nature, for she has an answer to everything.


FUNGI AS A BUILDING MATERIAL:

<br/>

 

MANUFACTURED WOOD MADE WITHOUT TREES:

<br/>


PLASTIC EATING FUNGI

<br/>

These examples are just a tip of the iceberg. Is the future a bio-based material world? We really hope so!

 

Mycelium_Mushrooms - The Future is Fungi

 The Mycelium_Mushrooms - The Future is Fungi


 

Mycelium - The Future is Fungi
The Conscious Club
October 31, 2017
Mycelium - The Future is Fungi
They were here first...
Source: https://thegreentemple.net/articles/mycelium-the-future-is-fungi

Did you know that long before trees overtook the land, earth was covered by giant mushrooms. Researchers found that land plants had evolved on Earth by about 700 million years ago and land fungi by about 1,300 million years ago. The largest living organism in the world today is a honey fungus measuring 2.4 miles (3.8 km) across in the Blue Mountains in Oregon.

 
So what's so special about fungi and how do they contribute to the ecosystem?

Fungi play an important role in energy cycling within, and between, ecosystems. Fungi are found in terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments, and are part of a diverse community of “decomposers” that break down dead plants and animals. Aside from fungi, this community includes bacteria, tiny invertebrates, such as nematodes, and larger invertebrates, like snails, beetles and earthworms. Fungi transform organic matter into forms that can be utilized by other decomposers, and into food for plants.
DECOMPOSITION

Fungi live everywhere that moisture is present. They can be found as single-celled organisms, like yeast, that are invisible to the naked eye, and as multiple-celled organisms, like mushrooms, that are made up of strands of cells called “hyphae.” Fungi are so widespread and numerous that they make up a large proportion of the biomass in any given ecosystem. Fungi play a very important part in the decomposition process, because they can break down tough organic materials, such as cellulose and lignin, which invertebrates find difficult to digest. Fungi release digestive enzymes that are used to metabolize complex organic compounds into soluble nutrients, such as simple sugars, nitrates and phosphates. Unlike animals, that digest food inside their bodies, fungi digest food outside of their “bodies” and then absorb the nutrients into their cells.
NUTRIENT CYCLING

Plants require nutrients for growth, but nutrients are seldom freely available in soil or water because they are locked up in insoluble compounds. Plants therefore rely on decomposers to provide them with soluble nutrients that can be taken up by roots. For instance nitrogen, one of the most important plant nutrients, is locked into proteins that are not easily taken up by plants -- although some plants have been shown to do so. Fungi metabolize proteins, and release inorganic forms of nitrogen, such as nitrate, that can easily be taken up by plant roots. In freshwater environments fungi are instrumental in the transfer of energy from riparian forest to aquatic ecosystems, by decomposing wood and leaf litter that fall into the water. In terrestrial systems, fungi transfer energy from above the ground, to below it, where it is recycled back to plants.

SYMBIOSIS:
Some species of fungi form symbiotic relationships with plants. Mycorrhizal fungi are associated with plant roots. This relationship is mutually beneficial because fungi facilitate the transfer of nutrients from the soil into plant roots, and in turn receive carbon from the plant. Carbon is stored by fungi in the soil and therefore is not released as carbon dioxide. It was once thought that plants were the only source of carbon for mycorrhizal fungi. However, an article published in the May 2008 issue of “Functional Ecology” reveals that mycorrhizal fungi can actively decompose organic carbon, and therefore play a greater role in carbon loss and input from soil than previously thought. Lichens are another type of fungi that form a symbiotic relationship, but they do so with cyanobacteria. Lichens provide shelter for the bacteria, which in turn make energy and carbon for lichens via photosynthesis.

FOOD SOURCE:
There are many animals that rely partially, or wholly, on fungi as a food source. Herbivorous mammals tend to be opportunistic fungus feeders, eating fungi if they come across it while browsing in the forest. However, for some animals fungi makes up a large part of their diets. Examples are the caribou, which relies heavily on tree lichens for food during the winter when leafy foods are not available, and the long-nosed potoroo, an Australian mammal whose diet consists almost entirely of fungal fruiting bodies. Many invertebrates also eat fungi, both opportunistically and actively. Stream invertebrates receive extra energy when they eat decaying leaves that have fungi growing on them. Banana slugs are commonly observed feeding on mushrooms and other fungi, which they appear to favor over other foods.
The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology. Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a network of fine white filaments (hyphae) .
 

The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology. Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a network of fine white filaments (hyphae) .
What is Mycelium?

The word mycelium literally means “more than one”. It is actually a plural form of the word Mycelia.  The word has New Latin and Greek origins and was first coined in text in the early 1800’s, and refers to the thread-like body of a fungus.  The main part of the fungus is the mycelia, which lives inside the substrate (wood, straw, grain, etc). The mushrooms that we eat are actually just a small visible part of the organism. In nature mushrooms "bloom" much like flowers do.  Like flowers, mushrooms bloom during certain times of the year when the conditions are just right.  To properly explain mycelium we have to get a little technical.

Mushrooms do not reproduce by seed or gather energy by photosynthesis like plants do.  They reproduce by means of spores.  These spores germinate to produce a mass of interwoven, single-cell wide structures known as hyphae.  Hyphae are sometimes also called Shiro.  Collectively, masses of hyphae are known as the mycelium.

Fungus absorbs nutrients from its environment (substrate, log, etc) through its mycelium in a two-stage process.  First, the hyphae secrete enzymes into the decaying wood or other substrate. These enzymes break down biological polymers into smaller units such as monomers.   The mycelium then absorbs these monomers, using a combination of facilitated diffusion and active transport.

Just like an apple on a tree the mushroom is a fruit of these reproducing fungi.  In nature the chances of mushroom spores germinating and then actually producing a mushroom are quite slim.  Everything has to be just right to actually produce a mushroom.  They don’t just grow everywhere at random.  This is why mushrooms are highly prized and hunted in the wild.  In our sterile laboratory however we can produce mushrooms that are free of contaminates.  Our mycologists cultivate a select species indoor where the mushroom mycelium can grow without the harsh environment nature sometimes provides.  

Cultures can be taken from spores or from the mushroom tissue itself.  In the process of germinating spores, many different strains are formed.  All strains however are not compatible with each other. In taking a culture from the tissue of a living mushroom, the cultivator preserves the exact genetic character of that specific mushroom.  This is also known as cloning.  When spores are used, a single strain must be singled out from the vast array of strains created.  In both cases, the end result is basically a network of cells.  This is the amazing mycelium, the actual organism that produces mushrooms.


Stop, observe and learn from mother nature, for she has an answer to everything.

Mycelium-Mushroom-Visions/Poem:
I have mushrooms growing on my "ceiling", each look like a "cherry", I give these mushroom "merit", reminds me of a psychedelic "bus", of course I am the "general" on this bus, there is also no "rent", mycelium is has a special foot-"print", many other mushrooms are "useless", I pick them from the "rural" regions, they are never "under" my feet, thereis a great "market" for mycelium in china, I always "discover" new mycelium locations,



I claim this is the most powerful mini generator in the world



By: Fabricated 5 minutes

562K subscribers

I claim this is the most powerful mini generator in the world
generator mini 500v 10.000w that i tested the mini generator and it outputs amazingly high voltage output.

great you can see more at;
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vYZVU...

Thursday, May 6, 2021

This is the Apache2 Defualt Index.html File Welcome Ppage

Apache2 Ubuntu Default Page: It works

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
It works!

'This is the Apache2 Defualt Index.html File Welcome Ppage' used to test the correct operation of the Apache2 server after installation on Ubuntu systems. It is based on the equivalent page on Debian, from which the Ubuntu Apache packaging is derived. If you can read this page, it means that the Apache HTTP server installed at this site is working properly. You should replace this file (located at /var/www/html/index.html) before continuing to operate your HTTP server.

If you are a normal user of this web site and don't know what this page is about, this probably means that the site is currently unavailable due to maintenance. If the problem persists, please contact the site's administrator.


Configuration Overview: 

Ubuntu's Apache2 default configuration is different from the upstream default configuration, and split into several files optimized for interaction with Ubuntu tools. 

The configuration system is fully documented in /usr/share/doc/apache2/README.Debian.gz

Refer to this for the full documentation. Documentation for the web server itself can be found by accessing the manual if the apache2-doc package was installed on this server.

The configuration layout for an Apache2 web server installation on Ubuntu systems is as follows:

/etc/apache2/
|-- apache2.conf
|       `--  ports.conf
|-- mods-enabled
|       |-- *.load
|       `-- *.conf
|-- conf-enabled
|       `-- *.conf
|-- sites-enabled
|       `-- *.conf
          
  • apache2.conf is the main configuration file. It puts the pieces together by including all remaining configuration files when starting up the web server.
  • ports.conf is always included from the main configuration file. It is used to determine the listening ports for incoming connections, and this file can be customized anytime.
  • Configuration files in the mods-enabled/, conf-enabled/ and sites-enabled/ directories contain particular configuration snippets which manage modules, global configuration fragments, or virtual host configurations, respectively.
  • They are activated by symlinking available configuration files from their respective *-available/ counterparts. These should be managed by using our helpers a2enmod, a2dismod, a2ensite, a2dissite, and a2enconf, a2disconf . See their respective man pages for detailed information.
  • The binary is called apache2. Due to the use of environment variables, in the default configuration, apache2 needs to be started/stopped with /etc/init.d/apache2 or apache2ctl. Calling /usr/bin/apache2 directly will not work with the default configuration.
 
 
 Document Roots:  
 

By default, Ubuntu does not allow access through the web browser to any file apart of those located in /var/www, public_html directories (when enabled) and /usr/share (for web applications). If your site is using a web document root located elsewhere (such as in /srv) you may need to whitelist your document root directory in /etc/apache2/apache2.conf.

The default Ubuntu document root is /var/www/html. You can make your own virtual hosts under /var/www. This is different to previous releases which provides better security out of the box.

Reporting Problems

Please use the ubuntu-bug tool to report bugs in the Apache2 package with Ubuntu. However, check existing bug reports before reporting a new bug.

Please report bugs specific to modules (such as PHP and others) to respective packages, not to the web server itself.

Sunday, November 22, 2020

Reference Research: BiCycle Generator

 

Would You Cycle For An Hour Every Day If It Powered Your Home For 24 Hours?
HomeConsciousnessActivismEnvironmentScienceTechnology

Would You Cycle For An Hour Every Day If It Powered Your Home For 24 Hours?

 SHARE:

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People often complain about both the high cost of energy and the fact that "they don't have time to exercise." This invention certainly solves both problems.



It is an invention that could provide free electricity to 1.3 billion people living without electricity due to extreme poverty. Manoj Bhargava has built an exercise bike to power the millions of homes around the world that have little or no electricity.


Early next year, he plans to distribute 10,000 of his free Electric - Battery Equipped - Bicycles to India, which he claims cover the energy needs of a home, lighting and other appliances for an entire day, by cycling an hour.


Bhargava, who dropped out of Princeton University after a year because he was bored and then lived for 12 years in an ashram in his hometown in India, does not stop in bicycles. He has tried to find ways to make seawater drinkable, boost body circulation, and provide unlimited amounts of geothermal energy through a graphene cable.


"If you have wealth, it is your duty to help those who do not have it," he says. "Make a difference in people's lives. Don't just talk about it."


Could his bike really work? Will people trust it, or will they have space in their homes for it? "It has enormous potential and opportunities for rural households," said Ajaita Shah, CEO of Frontier Markets, a company that sells solar lamps and lighting systems in India and says she would like to try the bike on her customers living in rural areas.


"It's so simple that we think we can make it for $ 100. A bicycle repairman can customize it anywhere," Bhargava said in an interview. The pedal turns a generator that produces electricity, which is stored in a battery.


Would You Cycle For An Hour Every Day If It Powered Your Home For 24 Hours?

The first 50 bikes will be tested in 15 or 20 small villages in the northern province of Uttarakhand before the final total installation, which will happen in the first quarter of next year.


Big problems and simple solutions...


The Bhargava team has come up with innovative ideas in health, water, and energy. They design "Renew," a medical device that acts as an auxiliary heart by sending blood from the legs to the body.


To deal with the drought, they have built the "Rain Maker," which converts 1,000 gallons per hour of all kinds of water to drinking water and is already being tested at a desalination plant in New Mexico.


Bhargava has an even bigger idea that aims to make the world independent of fossil fuels, which emit greenhouse gases. Whatever people think about climate change, he says, "pollution is a problem." His answer: draw the heat that is deep inside the Earth.


Would You Cycle For An Hour Every Day If It Powered Your Home For 24 Hours?

While geothermal energy is already widely used in some countries, such as Indonesia and Iceland, Bhargava is adopting a new approach. Instead of using steam mixed with chemicals to bring this heat to the surface, he will pump it with a graphene cable as the graphene is more durable than steel and is an incredible heat conductor.


"You don't need any combustion… Once you bring the heat up, you don't need to change any of the existing infrastructures," he says, explaining that it could simply be distributed from existing units instead of coal, oil, or gas.


"This is, in my opinion, the ultimate solution," he said, adding that this type of geothermal energy could replace 85% of fossil fuels today. He claims that according to the maps, half of the world has plenty of underground heat, which with graphene cables, could be distributed to the other half.


Would You Cycle For An Hour Every Day If It Powered Your Home For 24 Hours?

"I think someone is going to kill me," he says, laughing, noting that such an idea could disrupt the geopolitical map. He works with a graphene research center in Singapore to develop a cable and plans to present the available images later this year.


Bhargava says he sees no altruism in his charity. "I like the job," he says. "Ιt is not retribution. It's gotta be this, otherwise 'what else' can I do?"




All photo credits: tilestwra.com